Bias Correction by Use of Errors-in-Variables Regression Models in Studies with K-X-ray Fluorescence Bone Lead Measurements

Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.; Angeles, Gustavo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; & Hu, Howard. (2011). Bias Correction by Use of Errors-in-Variables Regression Models in Studies with K-X-ray Fluorescence Bone Lead Measurements. Environmental Research, 111(1), 17-20. PMCID: PMC3026095

Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.; Angeles, Gustavo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; & Hu, Howard. (2011). Bias Correction by Use of Errors-in-Variables Regression Models in Studies with K-X-ray Fluorescence Bone Lead Measurements. Environmental Research, 111(1), 17-20. PMCID: PMC3026095

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In-vivo measurement of bone lead by means of K-X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) is the preferred biological marker of chronic exposure to lead. Unfortunately, considerable measurement error associated with KXRF estimations can introduce bias in estimates of the effect of bone lead when this variable is included as the exposure in a regression model. Estimates of uncertainty reported by the KXRF instrument reflect the variance of the measurement error and, although they can be used to correct the measurement error bias, they are seldom used in epidemiological statistical analyzes. Errors-in-variables regression (EIV) allows for correction of bias caused by measurement error in predictor variables, based on the knowledge of the reliability of such variables. The authors propose a way to obtain reliability coefficients for bone lead measurements from uncertainty data reported by the KXRF instrument and compare, by the use of Monte Carlo simulations, results obtained using EIV regression models vs. those obtained by the standard procedures. Results of the simulations show that Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression models provide severely biased estimates of effect, and that EIV provides nearly unbiased estimates. Although EIV effect estimates are more imprecise, their mean squared error is much smaller than that of OLS estimates. In conclusion, EIV is a better alternative than OLS to estimate the effect of bone lead when measured by KXRF.




JOUR



Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor
Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.
Angeles, Gustavo
Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio
Hu, Howard



2011


Environmental Research

111

1

17-20


20101118






PMC3026095


4785

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