Sexual Behavior, HIV and Fertility Trends: A Comparative Analysis of Six Countries: Phase I of the ABC Study (Full Report)
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Author(s): Ruth Bessinger, Priscilla Akwara, Daniel Halperin
The USAID-supported ABC (Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condom use) Study examines how prevention barriers may have affected HIV prevalence as well as fertility patterns in Uganda, Zambia, and Thailand, where HIV prevalence declined during the 1990s, and Cameroon, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, where it appears not to have declined. This Phase I report compares levels and trends of behavioral indicators such as abstinence, age of sexual debut among youth, faithfulness in sexual relationships, reduction in multiple sexual partners, and condom use. Among the declining prevalence countries, the most dramatic reduction occured in Uganda, where prevalence among women in the capital city of Kampala fell from 30% in 1992 to about 10% by the end of the declade. Thailand and Zambia so experienced a significant decrease in HIV prevalence, especially among high risk groups and youth, respectively. Cameroon, Kenya, and Zimbabwe all experienced large increases of HIV prevalence in the 1990s, though prevalence varied considerably among the three countries.