SES and Race-ethnic Disparities in Food Purchasing and Dietary Intake: 2000-2015

This study examines how various socioeconomic factors (including the Great Recession and price changes) affect short-term and long-term food purchases and dietary outcomes across and within critical race/ethnic and SES subpopulations. The focus is on the consumer packaged goods (CPG) sector, which provides 68% of calories and a large proportion of other key nutrients (sodium, added sugars, saturated and trans fats). The study is: (1) Building on the food monitoring system by expanding it to include food purchase data from 2000-2015 (16 years), and expanding the crosswalk between the CPG products and USDA food codes used in WWEIA-NHANES to span 2003-2004 – 2015-2016 (7 cycles). (2) Developing and including sodium, added sugars, saturated fats, and trans fats as key outcome measures beyond calories alone. The study team estimates the added sugar content of products purchased in 2000-2015, to understand levels/trends in the amounts of added sugar in products purchased in the US overall and by critical race/ethnic and SES subpopulations over time. (3) Studying two key components of the CPG food sector—brand-type (e.g., national brands vs. private labels/store brands) and retail/store type (e.g., comparing grocery stores, convenience stores, drug stores, mass merchandisers/supercenters, club/discount stores). These two components of the food supply have heretofore never been studied for the way they affect Americans’ food choices and dietary intake, and how these may differ across and within race/ethnic and SES subpopulations. (4) Creating subpopulation-specific Nutrient Databases that reflect the unique set of CPG products each subpopulation purchases and consumes. The team can then examine how the nutrients consumed from each food group might differ by race/ethnicities or SES due to differences in amounts consumed and in the nutrient profile of the mix of products purchased. (5) Providing the first longitudinal analysis of how an array of economic forces—income, food prices, unemployment (at the household and market levels)—affect the CPG food purchase and dietary intake of specific race/ethnic and SES subpopulations.

Principal Investigator: Barry M. Popkin

CPC Fellow Investigators: David K. Guilkey , Shu Wen Ng

Funding Source: NIDDK

Grant Number: R01DK098072-NIDDK

Funding Period: 9/1/2013 - 7/31/2018

Primary Research Area: Population Health

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