Social Patterning of Acute Respiratory Illnesses in the Household Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) Study 2014-2015

Malosh, Ryan E.; Noppert, Grace A.; Zelner, Jon; Martin, Emily T.; & Monto, Arnold S. (2019). Social Patterning of Acute Respiratory Illnesses in the Household Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) Study 2014-2015. Epidemiology and Infection, 147, e185. PMCID: PMC6518597

Malosh, Ryan E.; Noppert, Grace A.; Zelner, Jon; Martin, Emily T.; & Monto, Arnold S. (2019). Social Patterning of Acute Respiratory Illnesses in the Household Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) Study 2014-2015. Epidemiology and Infection, 147, e185. PMCID: PMC6518597

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Social patterning of infectious diseases is increasingly recognised. Previous studies of social determinants of acute respiratory illness (ARI) have found that highly educated and lower income families experience more illnesses. Subjective social status (SSS) has also been linked to symptomatic ARI, but the association may be confounded by household composition. We examined SSS and ARI in the Household Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) Study in 2014-2015. We used SSS as a marker of social disadvantage and created a workplace disadvantage score for working adults. We examined the association between these measures and ARI incidence using mixed-effects Poisson regression models with random intercepts to account for household clustering. In univariate analyses, mean ARI was higher among children <5 years old (P < 0.001), and females (P = 0.004) at the individual level. At the household level, mean ARI was higher for households with at least one child <5 years than for those without (P = 0.002). In adjusted models, individuals in the lowest tertile of SSS had borderline significantly higher rates of ARI than those in the highest tertile (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.92). Households in the lowest tertile of SSS had significantly higher ARI incidence in household-level models (IRR 1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.03). We observed no association between workplace disadvantage and ARI. We detected an increase in the incidence of ARI for households with low SSS compared with those with high SSS, suggesting that socio-economic position has a meaningful impact on ARI incidence.




JOUR



Malosh, Ryan E.
Noppert, Grace A.
Zelner, Jon
Martin, Emily T.
Monto, Arnold S.



2019

P2C-No. T32-Yes. "The HIVE study is supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U01 IP000474) and the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (R01 AI097150). GAN received salary support from the National Institute of Aging grant 5 T32 AG000029-41 and from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development grant T32 HD091058."

Epidemiology and Infection

147


e185








PMC6518597


12133

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