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The Impact of Front-of-Package Claims, Fruit Images, and Health Warnings on Consumers’ Perceptions of Sugar-Sweetened Fruit Drinks: Three Randomized Experiments


Hall, Marissa G.; Lazard, Allison J.; Grummon, Anna H.; Mendel, Jennifer R.; & Taillie, Lindsey Smith (2020). The Impact of Front-of-Package Claims, Fruit Images, and Health Warnings on Consumers' Perceptions of Sugar-Sweetened Fruit Drinks: Three Randomized Experiments. Preventive Medicine, 132, 105998. PMCID: PMC7085890


We aimed to examine the impact of claims, fruit images, and health warnings on consumers' perceptions of fruit-flavored drinks with added sugar (i.e., "fruit drinks"). We conducted three 2x2x2 randomized experiments with online convenience samples of U.S. adults (Study 1 n = 2139 in 2018, current e-cigarette users and smokers; Study 2 n = 670 in 2018, current e-cigarette users; Study 3 n = 1001 in 2019, general sample). Participants viewed a fruit drink that differed in the presence of a "100% Vitamin C" nutrition claim, a fruit image, or a health warning. On average across the three studies, consumers who saw a claim on a fruit drink believed that the drink was more healthful than those who did not see the claim (mean average differential effect (ADE) = 0.66, p < .001); they were also more interested in consuming the drink (mean ADE = 0.38, p = .001). The health warning decreased perceived product healthfulness (mean ADE = -0.65, p < .001) and consumption interest (mean ADE = -0.49, p < .001). The fruit image had no effect on perceived product healthfulness (mean ADE = 0.03, p = .81) or purchase intentions (mean ADE = -0.04, p = .77). In Study 1 and Study 2, there were no interactions between claims, images, or warnings (all p > .05). In Study 3, the "100% Vitamin C" nutrition claim only increased perceived product healthfulness when the drink did not also have a health warning (interaction p < .05). These findings suggest that 100% Vitamin C claims increase the appeal of fruit drinks, whereas health warnings decrease the appeal. Together, these studies support policies to restrict marketing and require health warnings on sugar-sweetened beverage packaging.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Article Type


Year Published


Journal Title

Preventive Medicine


Hall, Marissa G.
Lazard, Allison J.
Grummon, Anna H.
Mendel, Jennifer R.
Taillie, Lindsey Smith




United States of America