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State-Level Transgender-Specific Policies, Race/Ethnicity, and Use of Medical Gender Affirmation Services among Transgender and Other Gender-Diverse People in the United States

Citation

Goldenberg, Tamar; Reisner, Sari L.; Harper, Gary W.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; & Stephenson, Rob (2020). State-Level Transgender-Specific Policies, Race/Ethnicity, and Use of Medical Gender Affirmation Services among Transgender and Other Gender-Diverse People in the United States. Milbank Quarterly, 98(3), 802-46. PMCID: PMC7482380

Abstract

POLICY POINTS: Protective transgender-specific policies (including those related to experiences of discrimination, health insurance coverage, and changing legal documents) are associated with increased access to medical gender affirmation services (hormone treatment, therapy/counseling) for transgender and other gender-diverse people. Restrictive transgender-specific policies are associated with less access to these services. The relationship between race/ethnicity and use of medical gender affirmation services varies across states and is context specific, indicating that race/ethnicity also plays a role in access to these types of care across states. Advocacy is needed to prevent or overturn restrictive policies and promote protective policies for transgender and other gender-diverse people, especially for people of color.

URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12467

Reference Type

Journal Article

Journal Title

Milbank Quarterly

Author(s)

Goldenberg, Tamar
Reisner, Sari L.
Harper, Gary W.
Gamarel, Kristi E.
Stephenson, Rob

Year Published

2020

Volume Number

98

Issue Number

3

Pages

802-46

PMCID

PMC7482380

Reference ID

13075