Kalleberg, Arne L. (1995). Part-Time Work and Workers in the United States: Correlates and Policy Issues. Washington and Lee Law Review, 52(3)
Employment relations in the United States are changing. During the past fifteen years, U.S. work organizations have moved away from the traditional model of employment in which most employees, especially males, were connected to their employers on a full-time, relatively permanent basis. Employees were expected to be loyal and committed to their employers, who reciprocated by granting them job security and long-term employment. Now, jobs are becoming less permanent and less secure. In essence, employment relations have become more "contingent." Contingent employment relations have been defined broadly as those situations in which "individual[s] do[ ] not have an explicit or implicit contract for long-term employment or [those] in which the minimum hours worked can vary in a nonsystematic manner."
Washington and Lee Law Review
Kalleberg, Arne L.