CitationGaston, Symielle A.; Atere-Roberts, Joelle; Ward, Julia B.; Slopen, Natalie B.; Forde, Allana T.; Sandler, Dale P.; Williams, David R.; & Jackson, Chandra L. (Online ahead of print). Experiences with Everyday and Major Forms of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Type 2 Diabetes Risk among White, Black, and Hispanic/Latina Women: Findings from the Sister Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. PMCID: PMC Journal - In Process
AbstractRacial/ethnic discrimination may contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk, but few studies have prospectively examined this relationship among racially/ethnically diverse populations. We analyzed prospective data from 33,833 eligible Sister Study participants enrolled from 2003 to 2009. In a follow-up questionnaire (2008-2012), participants reported lifetime experiences of everyday and major forms of racial/ethnic discrimination. Self-reported physician diagnoses of T2DM were ascertained until September 2017. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models, overall and stratified by race/ethnicity. Mean age (standard deviation) at enrollment was 54.9 (8.8) years, 90% self-identified as non-Hispanic (NH)-White, 7% NH-Black, and 3% Hispanic/Latina. Over an average of 7 years of follow-up, there were 1,167 incident cases of T2DM. NH-Black women most frequently reported everyday (75%) and major (51%) racial/ethnic discrimination (vs. 4% and 2% [NH-White] and 32% and 16% [Hispanic/Latina]). While everyday discrimination was not associated, experiencing major discrimination was marginally associated with higher T2DM risk overall (HR=1.26 [95% CI:0.99-1.61]) after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index. Associations were similar across racial/ethnic groups; however, racial/ethnic discrimination was more frequently reported among racial/ethnic minority women. Anti-discrimination efforts may help mitigate racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM risk.
Reference TypeJournal Article
Year PublishedOnline ahead of print
Journal TitleAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Author(s)Gaston, Symielle A.
Ward, Julia B.
Slopen, Natalie B.
Forde, Allana T.
Sandler, Dale P.
Williams, David R.
Jackson, Chandra L.
PMCIDPMC Journal - In Process
Data Set/StudySister Study
Continent/CountryUnited States of America