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Experiences with Everyday and Major Forms of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Type 2 Diabetes Risk among White, Black, and Hispanic/Latina Women: Findings from the Sister Study

Citation

Gaston, Symielle A.; Atere-Roberts, Joelle; Ward, Julia B.; Slopen, Natalie B.; Forde, Allana T.; Sandler, Dale P.; Williams, David R.; & Jackson, Chandra L. (Online ahead of print). Experiences with Everyday and Major Forms of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Type 2 Diabetes Risk among White, Black, and Hispanic/Latina Women: Findings from the Sister Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. PMCID: PMC Journal - In Process

Abstract

Racial/ethnic discrimination may contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk, but few studies have prospectively examined this relationship among racially/ethnically diverse populations. We analyzed prospective data from 33,833 eligible Sister Study participants enrolled from 2003 to 2009. In a follow-up questionnaire (2008-2012), participants reported lifetime experiences of everyday and major forms of racial/ethnic discrimination. Self-reported physician diagnoses of T2DM were ascertained until September 2017. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models, overall and stratified by race/ethnicity. Mean age (standard deviation) at enrollment was 54.9 (8.8) years, 90% self-identified as non-Hispanic (NH)-White, 7% NH-Black, and 3% Hispanic/Latina. Over an average of 7 years of follow-up, there were 1,167 incident cases of T2DM. NH-Black women most frequently reported everyday (75%) and major (51%) racial/ethnic discrimination (vs. 4% and 2% [NH-White] and 32% and 16% [Hispanic/Latina]). While everyday discrimination was not associated, experiencing major discrimination was marginally associated with higher T2DM risk overall (HR=1.26 [95% CI:0.99-1.61]) after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index. Associations were similar across racial/ethnic groups; however, racial/ethnic discrimination was more frequently reported among racial/ethnic minority women. Anti-discrimination efforts may help mitigate racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM risk.

URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwab189

Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published

Online ahead of print

Journal Title

American Journal of Epidemiology

Author(s)

Gaston, Symielle A.
Atere-Roberts, Joelle
Ward, Julia B.
Slopen, Natalie B.
Forde, Allana T.
Sandler, Dale P.
Williams, David R.
Jackson, Chandra L.

Article Type

Regular

PMCID

PMC Journal - In Process

Data Set/Study

Sister Study

Continent/Country

United States of America

State

Nonspecific

Race/Ethnicity

White
Black
Hispanic/Latinx

Sex/Gender

Ciswomen

ORCiD

Atere-Roberts - 0000-0002-9693-0709