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Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay & White, Michelle J. (2022). Local-Level Immigration Enforcement and Risk of Pediatric Hospitalization for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 24(2), 309-317. PMCID: PMC8408287


Immigration enforcement may disrupt access to health care, potentially increasing hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC). We aimed to assess the effect of local-level 287(g) immigration enforcement on North Carolina pediatric ACSC hospitalizations. Pediatric (< 19 year) ACSC hospitalizations were identified based on ICD-9 codes. We compared ACSC hospitalizations pre and post 287(g) implementation using a difference-in-difference analysis of Fiscal Year (FY)2006-2009 data. We used multi-level models to assess the effects of 287(g) programs on ACSC hospitalizations during FY2011-2015. Difference-in-difference analyses showed that ACSC hospitalizations increased by more than 2.48% in the year following 287(g) implementation (95% CI: 0.99%, 3.97%). Among the counties that had ever implemented a 287(g) program, the ACSC-increasing effect of an active 287(g) program was greatest in counties with a shorter tenure of their 287(g) program and for Hispanic/Latino children/adolescents. Our findings underscore the importance of describing the effects of local-level immigration enforcement on pediatric access to care and potentially avoidable hospitalizations.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health


Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay
White, Michelle J.

Article Type




Data Set/Study

NC Hospital Discharge Database


United States of America


North Carolina


Fernandez-Rhodes - 0000-0001-6985-423X