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Cash for Women’s Empowerment? A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Government of Zambia’s Child Grant Program

Citation

Bonilla, J. Alfredo; Zarzur, Rosa Castro; Handa, Sudhanshu; Nowlin, Claire; Peterman, Amber; Ring, Hannah; & David Seidenfeld on behalf of the Zambia Child Grant Program Evalution Team, (2017). Cash for Women's Empowerment? A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Government of Zambia's Child Grant Program. World Development, 95, 55-72. PMCID: PMC6667169

Abstract

The empowerment of women, broadly defined, is an often-cited objective and benefit of social cash transfer programs in developing countries. Despite the promise and potential of cash transfers to empower women, the evidence supporting this outcome is mixed. In addition, there is little evidence from programs at scale in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of the Government of Zambia's Child Grant Program, a poverty-targeted, unconditional transfer given to mothers or primary caregivers of young children aged zero to five. The quantitative component was a four-year longitudinal clustered-randomized control trial in three rural districts, and the qualitative component was a one-time data collection involving in-depth interviews with women and their partners stratified on marital status and program participation. Our study found that women in beneficiary households were making more sole or joint decisions (across five out of nine domains); however, impacts translated into relatively modest increases in the number of decision domains a woman is involved in, on average by 0.34 (or a 6% increase over a baseline mean of 5.3). Qualitatively, we found that changes in intrahousehold relationships were limited by entrenched gender norms, which indicate men as heads of household and primary decision makers. However, women's narratives showed the transfer increased financial empowerment as they were able to retain control over transfers for household investment and savings for emergencies. We highlight methodological challenges in using intrahousehold decision making as the primary indicator to measure empowerment. Results show potential for unconditional cash transfer programs to improve the financial and intrahousehold status of female beneficiaries, however it is likely additional design components are need for transformational change.

URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.02.017

Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published

2017

Journal Title

World Development

Author(s)

Bonilla, J. Alfredo
Zarzur, Rosa Castro
Handa, Sudhanshu
Nowlin, Claire
Peterman, Amber
Ring, Hannah
David Seidenfeld on behalf of the Zambia Child Grant Program Evalution Team,

PMCID

PMC6667169