CitationPeng, Ke; Rodríguez, Daniel A.; Peterson, Marc; Braun, Lindsay M.; Howard, Annie Green; Lewis, Cora E.; Shikany, James M.; & Gordon-Larsen, Penny (2020). GIS-Based Home Neighborhood Food Outlet Counts, Street Connectivity, and Frequency of Use of Neighborhood Restaurants and Food Stores. Journal of Urban Health, 97(2), 213-25. PMCID: PMC7101458
AbstractResearchers have linked neighborhood food availability to the overall frequency of using food outlets without noting if those outlets were within or outside of participants' neighborhoods. We aimed to examine the association of neighborhood restaurant and food store availability with frequency of use of neighborhood food outlets, and whether such an association was modified by neighborhood street connectivity using a large and diverse population-based cohort of middle-aged U.S. adults. We used self-reported frequency of use of fast food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, and grocery stores in respondents' home neighborhoods using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study Year 20 exam in 2005-2006 (n = 2860; Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; and Oakland, CA) and geographically matched GIS-measured neighborhood-level food resource, street, and U.S. Census data. We used mixed-effects logistic regression to examine the associations of the GIS-measured count of neighborhood fast food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, and grocery stores with self-reported frequency of using neighborhood restaurants and food stores and whether such associations differed by GIS-measured neighborhood street connectivity among those who perceived at least one such food outlet. In multivariate analyses, we observed a positive association between the GIS-measured count of neighborhood sit-down restaurants (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04) and the self-reported frequency of using neighborhood sit-down restaurants. We observed no statistically significant association between GIS-measured count of neighborhood fast food restaurants and self-reported frequency of using neighborhood fast food restaurants, nor did we observe a statistically significant association between GIS-measured count of neighborhood grocery stores and self-reported frequency of using neighborhood grocery stores. We observed inverse associations between GIS-measured neighborhood street connectivity and the self-reported frequencies of using neighborhood fast food restaurants (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.26-0.68) and grocery stores (OR = - 2.26, 95% CI - 4.52 to - 0.01). Neighborhood street connectivity did not modify the association between GIS-measured neighborhood restaurant and food store count and the self-reported frequency of using neighborhood restaurants and food stores. Our findings suggest that, for those who perceived at least one sit-down restaurant in their neighborhood, individuals who have more GIS-measured sit-down restaurants in their neighborhoods reported more frequent use of sit-down restaurants than those whose neighborhoods contain fewer such restaurants. Our results also suggest that, for those who perceived at least one fast food restaurant in their neighborhood, individuals who live in neighborhoods with greater GIS-measured street connectivity reported less use of neighborhood fast food restaurants than those who live in neighborhoods with less street connectivity. The count of neighborhood sit-down restaurants and the connectivity of neighborhood street networks appear important in understanding the use of neighborhood food resources.
Reference TypeJournal Article
Journal TitleJournal of Urban Health
Rodríguez, Daniel A.
Braun, Lindsay M.
Howard, Annie Green
Lewis, Cora E.
Shikany, James M.