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Neighborhood Inequities in Tobacco Retailer Density and the Presence of Tobacco-Selling Pharmacies and Tobacco Shops

Citation

Kong, Amanda Y.; Delamater, Paul L.; Gottfredson, Nisha C.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Baggett, Chris D.; & Golden, Shelley D. (Online ahead of print). Neighborhood Inequities in Tobacco Retailer Density and the Presence of Tobacco-Selling Pharmacies and Tobacco Shops. Health Education & Behavior.

Abstract

Studies document inequitable tobacco retailer density by neighborhood sociodemographics, but these findings may not be robust to different density measures. Policies to reduce density may be less equitable depending on how the presence of store types differs by neighborhood characteristics. We built a 2018 list of probable tobacco retailers in the United States and calculated four measures of density for all census tracts (N = 71,495), including total count, and number of retailers per 1,000 people, square mile, and kilometers of roadway. We fit multivariable regression models testing associations between each density measure and tract-level sociodemographics. We fit logistic regression models testing associations between sociodemographics and the presence of a tobacco-selling pharmacy or tobacco shop. Across all measures, tracts with a greater percentage of residents living below 150% of the federal poverty level (FPL) had higher density. A higher percentage of Black residents, Hispanic or Latino residents, and vacant housing was inconsistently associated with density across measures. Neighborhoods with a greater percentage of Black residents had a lower odds of having a pharmacy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.95, 0.97]) and tobacco shop (aOR = 0.87, CI [0.86, 0.89]), while those with a greater percentage of residents living below 150% FPL had greater odds of having a tobacco shop (aOR = 1.18, CI [1.16, 1.20]). Researchers and policymakers should consider how various measures of retailer density may capture different aspects of the environment. Furthermore, there may be an inequitable impact of retailer-specific policies on tobacco availability.

URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10901981211008390

Reference Type

Journal Article

Article Type

Regular

Year Published

Online ahead of print

Journal Title

Health Education & Behavior

Author(s)

Kong, Amanda Y.
Delamater, Paul L.
Gottfredson, Nisha C.
Ribisl, Kurt M.
Baggett, Chris D.
Golden, Shelley D.

Continent/Country

United States of America

State

Nonspecific