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Smoking and Pregnancy Outcome among African-American and White Women in Central North Carolina


Savitz, David A.; Dole, Nancy; Terry, James W., Jr.; Zhou, Haibo; & Thorp, John M., Jr. (2001). Smoking and Pregnancy Outcome among African-American and White Women in Central North Carolina. Epidemiology, 12(6), 636-642.


Despite extensive research on tobacco smoking during pregnancy, few studies address risks among African-American and white women, groups that differ in brand preference and smoking habits. The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study is a prospective cohort study that included 2,418 women with detailed information on smoking during pregnancy, including brand, number of cigarettes per day, and changes during pregnancy. We analyzed risk of preterm birth (<37 and <34 weeks' gestation) and small-for-gestational-age deliveries in relation to tobacco use. Pregnant African-American smokers differed markedly from whites in brand preference (95% vs 26% smoked menthol cigarettes) and number of cigarettes per day (1% of African-Americans and 12% of whites smoked 20+ cigarettes per day). Smoking was not related to risk of preterm birth overall, but cotinine measured at the time of delivery was (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-4.5). A clear association and dose-response gradient was present for risk of fetal growth restriction (risk ratio for 20+ cigarettes/day = 2.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.4-4.0). Associations of tobacco use with preterm premature rupture of amniotic membrane resulting in preterm birth were notably stronger than the associations with other types of preterm birth.


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Journal Article

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Savitz, David A.
Dole, Nancy
Terry, James W., Jr.
Zhou, Haibo
Thorp, John M., Jr.