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Johnson, James H., Jr. (2002). Immigration Reform, Homeland Defense, and Metropolitan Economies in the Post 9-11 Environment. Urban Geography, 23(3), 201-212.


U.S. attitudes toward immigration and immigrants changed dramatically after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks (Morin and Deane, 2002). Emblematic of the shift, the federal government introduced immigration reforms that impose major constraints on the movement of people (as well as capital, goods and services) into and out of the United States (Miller and Anderson, 2001). Given the human death toll and the magnitude of the economic losses, these and other federal actions, including the establishment of an Office of Homeland Security, may seem perfectly rational (Navarro and Spencer, 2001). Unfortunately, in the rush to boost homeland security, it appears that little, if any, consideration was given to the threat for the post 9-11 immigration reforms to stifle future U.S. economic growth and development (Johnson, 2002).


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Urban Geography


Johnson, James H., Jr.