Zohoori, Namvar (1994). The Effects of Calories and Types of Supplements on Postpartum Amenorrhea in the Philippines. In Human Reproductive Ecology: Interactions of Environment, Fertility, and Behavior. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 709
Data on 3080 mother-infant pairs from Cebu in the Philippines were used to conduct a logistics hazards analysis to determine the effect of supplemental calories and the types of supplements that the infant ingests on return to menses. Breast feeding had a significant reduced odds of the mother returning to menses (odds ratio [OR] = 0.15; p 0.0001). Supplemental calories (50 calories/kg body weight) had a significant increased odds of return to menses (OR = 1.16; p 0.05). Other milks accounted for most of the effect of supplemental calories since they increased the odds of return to menses significantly (OR = 1.24 for low milks, p 0.05; OR = 1.78 for high milks, p 0.0001). Only high other liquids had a significant effect (OR = 1.22; p 0.05). Semi-solids had no effect at all, while solid foods reduced the odds of returning to menses (OR = 0.83 for low solids, p 0.05; OR = 0.92 for high solids, not significant). These findings suggest that solid foods do not satisfy the need for suckling and/or are not breast milk substitutes and that mothers breast feed at maximal or near-maximal levels.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences