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Diet Quality and Weight Gain among Black and White Young Adults: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (1985-2005)

Citation

Zamora, Daisy; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jacobs, David R., Jr.; & Popkin, Barry M. (2010). Diet Quality and Weight Gain among Black and White Young Adults: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (1985-2005). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 92(4), 784-793. PMCID: PMC2937583

Abstract

Background: Little is known about the long-term health consequences of following the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA).
Objective: The objective was to examine the longitudinal association between diets consistent with the 2005 DGA and subsequent weight gain.
Design: We used data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a cohort of black and white men and women aged 18–30 y at baseline who attended le 7 examinations from 1985–1986 to 2005–2006 (n = 4913). We created a 100-point Diet Quality Index (2005 DQI) to rate participantsrsquo diets based on meeting the 2005 DGA key recommendations. Longitudinal models of weight gain were adjusted for physical activity, smoking, energy intake, age, education, sex, and initial body mass index (BMI) and included interaction terms of DQI by race and initial BMI (if statistically significant).
Results: We found effect modification by race (likelihood ratio test, P lt 0.03 in all models). The mean adjusted 20-y weight change was +19.4 kg for blacks and +11.2 kg for whites with high diet quality (DQI gt 70) and +17.8 for blacks and +13.9 for whites with a DQI lt 50 (P lt 0.05). In race-specific Cox models (with interaction terms for DQI times initial BMI, P lt 0.05), a 10-point increase in DQI score was associated with a 10% lower risk of gaining 10 kg in whites with an initial BMI (in kg/m2) lt 25 but with a 15% higher risk in blacks with baseline obesity (P lt 0.001).
Conclusions: Our findings do not support the hypothesis that a diet consistent with the 2005 DGA benefits long-term weight maintenance in American young adults. Greater need for attention to obesity prevention in future DGAs is warranted.

URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2010.29161

Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published

2010

Journal Title

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Author(s)

Zamora, Daisy
Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Jacobs, David R., Jr.
Popkin, Barry M.

PMCID

PMC2937583