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Epidemiology and Quantitative Risk Assessment: A Bridge from Science to Policy

Citation

Hertz-Picciotto, Irva (1995). Epidemiology and Quantitative Risk Assessment: A Bridge from Science to Policy. American Journal of Public Health, 85(4), 484-91. PMCID: PMC1615131

Abstract

Quantitative risk assessment provides formalized scientific input to regulatory agencies that set occupational and environmental standards for potentially toxic exposures. Current practice relies heavily on statistical extrapolation from high-dose animal studies. Human data obviate the need for interspecies extrapolation and reduce the range of high-to-low dose extrapolation. This paper proposes a framework for classifying individual epidemiologic studies as to their adequacy for use in dose-response extrapolation. The framework considers five criteria: (1) a stable positive association with an adverse health outcome; (2) high overall study quality; (3) no substantial confounding; (4) quantitative exposure assessment for individuals; (5) evidence of a dose-response relationship. With these criteria, studies can be categorized as (1) suitable to serve as a basis for extrapolation; (2) inadequate to be the basis for direct extrapolation but appropriate to use for evaluating the plausibility of animal-derived risk estimates; or (3) useful only for hazard identification, not for dose-response assessment. Methods for using studies in the first two categories are briefly described. The emphasis is not on establishing rigid rules, but rather on ensuring a consistent, reliable process that makes optimum use of available data.

URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.85.4.484

Notes

ProCite field[28]: PMC1615131

Reference Type

Journal Article

Journal Title

American Journal of Public Health

Author(s)

Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

Year Published

1995

Volume Number

85

Issue Number

4

Pages

484-91

PMCID

PMC1615131

Reference ID

525