CitationGuo, Guang; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; & Harris, Kathleen Mullan (1996). Parental Labor Force Attachment and Grade Retention among Urban Black Children. Sociology of Education, 69, 217-236.
AbstractThis study focused on the impact of weak labor force attachment on grade retention by Grade 9 among urban Black children using data from a 20-year longitudinal study in Baltimore. Unlike more traditional measures, such as high school completion, grade retention is a dynamic indicator of both primary and secondary education. A youngster must be promoted at the end of each grade to graduate from high school. Higher risks of grade retention are associated with welfare dependence only when income is obtained from welfare alone, when receipt of welfare is persistent, and when a child is in the fourth or higher grade. Preschool verbal ability is predictive of grade retention only in Grades 1-3, but not in Grades 4-9.
Reference TypeJournal Article
Journal TitleSociology of Education
Harris, Kathleen Mullan