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Parental Labor Force Attachment and Grade Retention among Urban Black Children

Citation

Guo, Guang; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; & Harris, Kathleen Mullan (1996). Parental Labor Force Attachment and Grade Retention among Urban Black Children. Sociology of Education, 69, 217-36.

Abstract

This study focused on the impact of weak labor force attachment on grade retention by Grade 9 among urban Black children using data from a 20-year longitudinal study in Baltimore. Unlike more traditional measures, such as high school completion, grade retention is a dynamic indicator of both primary and secondary education. A youngster must be promoted at the end of each grade to graduate from high school. Higher risks of grade retention are associated with welfare dependence only when income is obtained from welfare alone, when receipt of welfare is persistent, and when a child is in the fourth or higher grade. Preschool verbal ability is predictive of grade retention only in Grades 1-3, but not in Grades 4-9.

URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2112730

Reference Type

Journal Article

Journal Title

Sociology of Education

Author(s)

Guo, Guang
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Harris, Kathleen Mullan

Year Published

1996

Volume Number

69

Pages

217-36

Reference ID

757