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Understanding the Patterns and Trends of Sodium Intake, Potassium Intake, and Sodium to Potassium Ratio and Their Effect on Hypertension in China

Citation

Du, Shufa; Neiman, Andrea; Batis, Carolina R.; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jiguo; & Popkin, Barry M. (2014). Understanding the Patterns and Trends of Sodium Intake, Potassium Intake, and Sodium to Potassium Ratio and Their Effect on Hypertension in China. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99(2), 334-343. PMCID: PMC3893725

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of sodium reduction, potassium intake, and the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) on hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Major gaps exist in knowledge regarding these issues in China.
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the patterns and trends of dietary sodium intake, potassium intake, and the Na/K ratio and their relations with incident hypertension in China.
DESIGN: The China Health and Nutrition Survey cohort includes 16,869 adults aged 20-60 y from 1991 to 2009. Three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and condiment and food weights provided detailed dietary data. Multinomial logistic regression models determined trends and patterns of sodium and potassium intake and the Na/K ratio. Models for survival-time data estimated the hazard of incident hypertension.
RESULTS: Sodium intake is decreasing but remains double the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Most sodium comes from added condiments. Adults in the central provinces have the highest sodium intake and the most rapid increase in hypertension. Potassium intake has increased slightly but is below half of the recommended amount. The Na/K ratio is significantly higher than the recommended amounts. Recent measurements of high sodium intake, low potassium intake, and high Na/K ratio have strong independent dose-response associations with incident hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: Reducing sodium in processed foods, the major public health strategy in Western countries, may be less effective in China, where salt intake remains high. Replacing sodium with potassium in salt to control and prevent hypertension in China should be considered along with other public health and clinical prevention options.

URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.059121

Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published

2014

Journal Title

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Series Title

Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul;100(1):299.

Author(s)

Du, Shufa
Neiman, Andrea
Batis, Carolina R.
Wang, Huijun
Zhang, Bing
Zhang, Jiguo
Popkin, Barry M.

PMCID

PMC3893725