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Albrecht, Sandra S.; Semrau, Katherine; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Vwalika, Cheswa; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Thea, Donald M.; & Kuhn, Louise (2006). Predictors of Nonadherence to Single-Dose Nevirapine Therapy for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 41(1), 114-118. PMCID: PMC1855628


BACKGROUND: Adequate adherence is required for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (pMTCT) programs to be effective. We investigated predictors and extent of nonadherence to single-dose nevirapine.
METHODS: Data on nevirapine intake and possible predictors were collected among 760 HIV-positive women with liveborn babies enrolled in a study in Lusaka, Zambia.
RESULTS: Most (94%) women took nevirapine before delivery, and most (91%) newborns received it soon after delivery. Maternal nonadherence was associated with home births (odds ratio [OR]: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3 to 7.4), no high school education (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.3), and low newborn birth weight (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 20.1). Disclosure of HIV status and couples counseling was only associated with adherence among home births. Failure to administer nevirapine to the newborn was associated with birth at the tertiary hospital (OR: 7.2; 95% CI: 3.7 to 13.8), lower 5-minute Apgar scores (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4 to 0.7), and neonatal death (OR: 5.8; 95% CI: 2.0 to 16.3).
CONCLUSIONS: Excellent adherence to single-dose nevirapine for pMTCT can be achieved. Nonadherence seems to be affected by place of birth and by poor health status of the newborn. Procedures to ensure that viable yet ill neonates receive nevirapine should be part of clinical protocols and training within pMTCT programs.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes


Albrecht, Sandra S.
Semrau, Katherine
Kasonde, Prisca
Sinkala, Moses
Kankasa, Chipepo
Vwalika, Cheswa
Aldrovandi, Grace M.
Thea, Donald M.
Kuhn, Louise