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Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Elder, Glen H., Jr.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Simons, Ronald L.; & Whitbeck, Les B. (1993). Family Economic Stress and Adjustment of Early Adolescent Girls. Developmental Psychology, 29, 206-219.


Proposes a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. With a sample of 220 7th-grade girls living in intact families in the rural Midwest, the theoretical constructs in the model were measured using both trained observer and family member reports. In general, results were consistent with the proposed model. Economic pressures led to depression and demoralization for both parents, the result of which was greater marital conflict and disruptions in skillful parenting. The emotions and behaviors of both mothers and fathers were almost equally affected by financial difficulties, and disruptions in each parent's childrearing behaviors had adverse consequences for adolescent development. Parents' depressed mood and disrupted childrearing practices both directly affected girls' adjustment.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Developmental Psychology


Conger, Rand D.
Conger, Katherine Jewsbury
Elder, Glen H., Jr.
Lorenz, Frederick O.
Simons, Ronald L.
Whitbeck, Les B.