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Smith, Carrie Lean; Johnson, James H., Jr.; Sapp, Marty; & Farrell, Walter C., Jr. (1997). Psychoeducational Correlates of Achievement for High School Seniors at a Private School: The Relationship among Locus of Control, Self-Esteem, Academic Achievement, and Academic Self-Esteem. The High School Journal, 81(3), 161-166.


This study investigated the relationships among psychoeducational variables, including self-esteem, locus of control, academic self-esteem, and academic achievement, in a group of 35 high school seniors from a private Catholic high school. Assessment instruments included the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the
Brookover Self-Concept of Academic Ability Scale, and the Rotter Internal/External Locus of Control Scale. Cumulative grade records were used to measure academic achievement. Pearson's r correlation coefficients were calculated between measures of (1) locus of control and self-esteem, (2) locus of control and academic self-esteem, (3) locus of control and academic achievement, (4) self-esteem and academic self-esteem, (5) self-esteem and academic achievement, and (6) academic self-esteem and academic achievement. These findings revealed that academic self-esteem was positively related to academic achievement (r = .72, p < .005), and that locus of control was negatively related to self-esteem (r = -.338, p < .05); the results suggest that students' perception of their academic ability is a predictor of academic performance. In addition, students with an external locus of control orientation may have lower self-esteem.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

The High School Journal


Smith, Carrie Lean
Johnson, James H., Jr.
Sapp, Marty
Farrell, Walter C., Jr.