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Pace, Noemi; Daidone, Silvio; Davis, Benjamin; Handa, Sudhanshu; Knowles, Marco; & Pickmans, Robert (2018). One plus One Can Be Greater than Two: Evaluating Synergies of Development Programmes in Malawi. Journal of Development Studies, 54(11), 2023-2060. PMCID: PMC6713287


This paper investigates the interplay between the Social Cash Transfer Programme (SCTP) and the Farm Input Subsidy Programme (FISP) in Malawi. We take advantage of data collected from a 17-month evaluation of a sample of households eligible to receive SCTP, which also provided information about inclusion into FISP. We estimate two types of synergies: i) the complementarity between SCTP and FISP, that is whether the impact of both interventions run together is larger than the sum of the impacts of these interventions when run separately, and ii) the incremental impact of receiving FISP when a household already receives SCTP, as well as the incremental impact of receiving SCTP when a household already receives FISP. The analysis shows that there are synergies between the two policy interventions, mainly in terms of incremental impacts of each programme over the other, in increasing expenditure, agricultural production and livestock.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Development Studies


Pace, Noemi
Daidone, Silvio
Davis, Benjamin
Handa, Sudhanshu
Knowles, Marco
Pickmans, Robert