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Bender, Deborah E.; Dusch, Erin; & McCann, Margaret F. (1998). From Efficacy to Effectiveness: Selecting Indicators for a Community-Based Lactational Amenorrhoea Method Promotion Programme. Journal of Biosocial Science, 30(2), 193-225.


This paper reviews the results of clinical trials and community studies of lactational amenorrhoea and its role as a contraceptive method (LAM). Indicators which are used in efficacy trials and effectiveness interventions are compared and sets of indicators of effectiveness appropriate to community-based LAM programmes are recommended. A five-tiered ecological framework is used to facilitate selection of indicators which range from individual to policy level outcomes. The indicator framework is intended as a tool for health practitioners in family planning and maternal and child health service delivery settings who are interested in designing programmatic interventions for the promotion of LAM, particularly among less well-educated women of lower socioeconomic communities.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Biosocial Science


Bender, Deborah E.
Dusch, Erin
McCann, Margaret F.