Skip to main content


Ewing, Alexander C.; Davis, Nicole L.; Kayira, Dumbani; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; van der Horst, Charles M.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Kourtis, Athena P., and the BAN Study Team [; Linda S. Adair; and; & Sandra S. Albrecht, Members, et al. (2019). Prescription of Antibacterial Drugs for HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Infants, Malawi, 2004-2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25(1), 103-112. PMCID: PMC6302572


Antimicrobial drug resistance is a serious health hazard driven by overuse. Administration of antimicrobial drugs to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants, a population that is growing and at high risk for infection, is poorly studied. We therefore analyzed factors associated with antibacterial drug administration to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants during their first year of life. Our study population was 2,152 HIV-exposed, uninfected infants enrolled in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition study in Lilongwe, Malawi, during 2004-2010. All infants were breastfed through 28 weeks of age. Antibacterial drugs were prescribed frequently (to 80% of infants), and most (67%) of the 5,329 prescriptions were for respiratory indications. Most commonly prescribed were penicillins (43%) and sulfonamides (23%). Factors associated with lower hazard for antibacterial drug prescription included receipt of cotrimoxazole preventive therapy, receipt of antiretroviral drugs, and increased age. Thus, cotrimoxazole preventive therapy may lead to fewer prescriptions for antibacterial drugs for these infants.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Emerging Infectious Diseases


Ewing, Alexander C.
Davis, Nicole L.
Kayira, Dumbani
Hosseinipour, Mina C.
van der Horst, Charles M.
Jamieson, Denise J.
Kourtis, Athena P., and the BAN Study Team [
Linda S. Adair
Sandra S. Albrecht, Members