Menu Close

Enough Is Enough: How West African Farmers Judge Water Sufficiency


Roncoli, Carla; Orlove, Ben; Ungemach, Christoph; Dowd-Uribe, Brian; West, Colin Thor; Milch, Kerry; & Sanon, Moussa (2019). Enough Is Enough: How West African Farmers Judge Water Sufficiency. Regional Environmental Change, 19(2), 573-585.


This article engages the concept of water literacy, coupled with photo-elicitation methods and long-term ethnographic research, to explore how West African farmers judge water sufficiency. The study focuses on the Upper Comoe river basin in southwest Burkina Faso, an area known for conflict among multiple water users. Pictures of familiar river sites were shown to farmers to explore how they determine whether water suffice to meet their irrigation and livelihood needs. The likelihood of finding water to be sufficient was influenced by who the respondents were (gender) and by where (downstream/upstream) and when (early/late dry season) the picture was taken. Farmers' sufficiency judgments were framed as a cognitive and linguistic dichotomy that posits water as being either enough or not enough. They drew upon a diversity of indicators in the natural and built environment and hinged on salient attributes, such as the face and the flow of the water. These two attributes enabled farmers to determine the water's force, a foundational cultural notion that blends material and spiritual considerations. Farmers' assessments engage multiple time horizons, from memories of the past, to current observations and anticipated future scenarios. By relying upon shared memories and meanings, farmers can compare judgments, analyze options, and collectively mobilize to counteract the dominance of techno-scientific knowledge in official water allocation decisions.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Regional Environmental Change


Roncoli, Carla
Orlove, Ben
Ungemach, Christoph
Dowd-Uribe, Brian
West, Colin Thor
Milch, Kerry
Sanon, Moussa