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The Role of Outcome and Efficacy Expectations in an Intervention Designed to Reduce Infants’ Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke


Strecher, Victor J.; Bauman, Karl E.; Boat, Barbara W.; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Greenberg, Robert A.; & Stedman, Helen C. (1993). The Role of Outcome and Efficacy Expectations in an Intervention Designed to Reduce Infants' Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Health Education Research, 8(1), 137-43.


The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of a theoretical framework in an intervention program designed to reduce infants' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The content of a nurse-based intervention focused on two psychosocial constructs: expectations of outcomes which may result from behaviors associated with ETS exposure and expectations of self-efficacy associated with the mother's ability to engage in these behaviors. This study found both constructs predictive of change in, and maintenance of, ETS exposure control. In particular, mothers reporting both low outcome and low efficacy expectations tended to have infants with the highest levels of ETS exposure. We also found that our intervention was effective in changing outcome and efficacy expectations in the desired direction. These findings suggest that outcome and efficacy expectations are changeable, and, therefore, represent important targets in future programs aimed at controlling ETS exposure.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Journal Title

Health Education Research


Strecher, Victor J.
Bauman, Karl E.
Boat, Barbara W.
Fowler, Mary Glenn
Greenberg, Robert A.
Stedman, Helen C.

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