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Cross-Sensor Calibration between Ikonos and Landsat ETM Plus for Spectral Mixture Analysis


Song, Conghe H. (2004). Cross-Sensor Calibration between Ikonos and Landsat ETM Plus for Spectral Mixture Analysis. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 1(4), 272-276.


Spectral mixture analysis is an algorithm that is developed to overcome the weakness in traditional land-use/land-cover (LULC) classification where each picture element (pixel) from remote sensing is assigned to one and only one LULC type. In reality, a remotely sensed signal from a pixel is often a spectral mixture from several LULC types. Spectral mixture analysis can derive subpixel proportions for the endmembers from remotely sensed data. However, one frequently faces the problem in determining the spectral signatures for the endmembers. This study provides a cross-sensor calibration algorithm that enables us to obtain the endmember signatures from an Ikonos multispectral image for spectral mixture analysis using Landsat ETM+ images. The calibration algorithm first converts the raw digital numbers from both sensors into at-satellite reflectance. Then, the Ikonos at-satellite reflectance image is degraded to match the spatial resolution of the Landsat ETM+ image. The histograms at the same spatial resolution from the two images are matched, and the signatures from the pure pixels in the Ikonos image are used as the endmember signatures. Validation of the spectral mixture analysis indicates that the simple algorithm works effectively. The algorithm is not limited to Ikonos and Landsat sensors. It is, in general, applicable to spectral mixture analysis where a high spatial resolution sensor and a low spatial resolution sensor with similar spectral resolutions are available as long as images collected by the two sensors are close in time over the same place.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters


Song, Conghe H.