CitationHall, Marissa G.; Mendel, Jennifer R.; Noar, Seth M.; & Brewer, Noel T. (2018). Why Smokers Avoid Cigarette Pack Risk Messages: Two Randomized Clinical Trials in the United States. Social Science & Medicine, 213, 165-72. PMCID: PMC6129195
AbstractBACKGROUND: Message avoidance (e.g., trying not to look at the message) may be motivated by reactance, a maladaptive rejection of the message. An alternative view is that avoidance indicates that a message is eliciting fear and other negative affect, thereby increasing the likelihood of behavioral change. We sought to identify which psychological mechanism-reactance or fear and other negative affect-explains message avoidance. We also examined whether avoidance was associated with more forgoing or butting out of cigarettes.
Reference TypeJournal Article
Journal TitleSocial Science & Medicine
Author(s)Hall, Marissa G.
Mendel, Jennifer R.
Noar, Seth M.
Brewer, Noel T.