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Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

Citation

Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto, Jr.; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; & Brewer, Noel T. (2016). Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(12), 1251. PMCID: PMC5201392

Abstract

To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3-7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121251

Reference Type

Journal Article

Journal Title

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

Author(s)

Brodar, Kaitlyn E.
Hall, Marissa G.
Butler, Eboneé N.
Parada, Humberto, Jr.
Stein-Seroussi, Al
Hanley, Sean
Brewer, Noel T.

Year Published

2016

Volume Number

13

Issue Number

12

Pages

1251

PMCID

PMC5201392

Reference ID

12828