CitationKalleberg, Arne L.; Rasell, Edith; Cassirer, Naomi; Reskin, Barbara F.; Hudson, Kenneth; Webster, David; Appelbaum, Eileen; & Spalter-Roth, Roberta M. (1997). Nonstandard Work, Substandard Jobs: Flexible Work Arrangements in the U.S.. Washington: Economic Policy Institute and Women's Research and Education Institute.
AbstractFor the past two decades, employment arrangements in the United States have been undergoing fundamental changes. In the past, the typical career paradigm was characterized by lifetime employment with a single employer, steady advances up the job ladder, and a pension upon retirement. But this pattern is becoming less the norm, while nonstandard work arrangements (NSWAs)–independent contracting, working for a temporary help agency, contract or on-call work, day labor, self-employment, and regular part-time employment–are growing more and more common. In 1995, 29.4% of all jobs were in nonstandard work arrangements, with 34.3% of female workers and 25.3% of males working in nonstandard jobs. (Because the data analyzed in this report are from the first nationally representative survey that questioned respondents about all types of work arrangements, we cannot assess historical trends–see the Appendix for a discussion of the growth in nonstandard work arrangements.)
Reference TypeEdited Book
Author(s)Kalleberg, Arne L.
Reskin, Barbara F.
Spalter-Roth, Roberta M.