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Appold, Stephen J.; Nguyen Quy Thanh; Kasarda, John D.; & Le Ngoc Hung (1996). Entrepreneurship in a Restructuring Economy: Small Private Manufacturers in Hanoi. Journal of Asian Business, 12(4), 1-31.


Several theorists have suggested that entrepreneurship is a viable route of employment and wealth generation for developing countries as well as for the mature economies of industrialized countries. The restructuring economy of Vietnam provides an interesting opportunity for the study of entrepreneurship because, although the needs are great, the formal and informal infrastructure to support emerging small businesses is lacking. We assess the role of entrepreneurship in a restructuring economy through a survey of 124 smallĀ­scale manufacturers, located in Hanoi. We find the entrepreneurial sector to be generally healthy. Productive entrepreneurship is open to a wide range of individuals and not limited to those privileged by the former system. Informal mechanisms, discussed in the literature on industrialized countries, are able to overcome many of the barriers to entrepreneurship. We find, however, that the bases of competitive advantage for individual enterprises to be poorly developed, suggesting a somewhat limited long range contribution to economic development.

Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Asian Business


Appold, Stephen J.
Nguyen Quy Thanh
Kasarda, John D.
Le Ngoc Hung