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Kalleberg, Arne L. & Kluegel, J.R. (1975). The Analysis of the Multitrait Multimethod Matrix: Some Limitations and an Alternative. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(1), 1-9.


Discusses the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) matrix which is widely used by researchers in applied psychology to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of constructs. A path analytic conceptualization of MTMM matrix analysis shows that the appropriateness of the inferences drawn on the basis of this method is heavily dependent upon the extent to which its underlying assumptions are fulfilled. To test these assumptions, as well as to interpret the relationships in the MTMM matrix, it is recommended that a confirmatory factor analytic model be used. This technique is illustrated by a reanalysis of J. Wanous and E. Lawler's (see record 1972-27988-001) MTMM matrix; the reanalysis shows how faulty inferences were drawn due to a violation of the assumptions underlying the matrix.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Applied Psychology


Kalleberg, Arne L.
Kluegel, J.R.


Kalleberg - 0000-0002-1590-7583