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Sampling Bias in Transgender Studies–Authors’ Reply


Baral, Stefan D.; Poteat, Tonia; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; & Beyrer, Chris (2013). Sampling Bias in Transgender Studies--Authors' Reply. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(10), 832-833.


We thank Greta Bauer and Ayden Scheim for highlighting concerns about selection bias in studies of transgender women and the generalisability of estimates of HIV burden in these women. As described in our study, the sampling strategies that are most pragmatic in most settings tend to oversample higher risk transgender women, which could overestimate the actual burden of HIV in all transgender women in a city, country, or region. This is a challenge for studies in any populations in which denominators are scarce and population-based sampling is problematic. Our study called for improved sampling frames of transgender women through inclusion of transgender identities in government censuses or formal recognition of transgender people in the context of government documentation.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Article Type


Year Published


Journal Title

Lancet Infectious Diseases


Baral, Stefan D.
Poteat, Tonia
Guadamuz, Thomas E.
Beyrer, Chris