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Tashakkori, Abbas & Thompson, Vaida D. (1991). Race Differences in Self-Perception and Locus of Control during Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Methodological Implications. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 117(2), 133-152.


Data from a longitudinal sample of 14,721 White (7,193 men, 7,528 women) and 5,197 Black (2,400 men, 2,797 women) American high school students tested first between ages 16 and 19 and then in two follow-ups 4 and 6 years later were examined to determine Black-White and male-female differences in self-esteem and causal orientations. On general self-esteem scores, Blacks rated themselves more positively than Whites. Blacks also rated themselves more positively on specific self-beliefs (e.g., social attractiveness), although the magnitude of differences in such cases was quite small. On control measures, Blacks perceived greater external control pertaining to both cultural events and personal efficacy, although they had slightly greater expectations about future academic success. Results concerning the general and personal self-efficacy of Blacks were somewhat inconsistent with earlier reports (Coleman et al., 1966; Osborne & LeGette, 1982). Women tended to show less self-efficacy than men, but there were no interactions of race and sex. Even in the presence of significant effects for race and sex, mean differences tended to be relatively small.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs


Tashakkori, Abbas
Thompson, Vaida D.