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Omofuma, Omonefe O.; Steck, Susan E.; Olshan, Andrew F.; & Troester, Melissa A. (2022). The Association Between Meat and Fish Intake by Preparation Methods and Breast Cancer in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS). Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 193(1), 187-201. PMCID: PMC8997170


PURPOSE: We examined the associations between intake of meat and fish by preparation methods and breast cancer in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a racially diverse population-based case-control study.
METHODS: African American (AA) and European American (EA) women aged 20-74 years with a first diagnosis of invasive or in situ breast cancers were frequency matched by race and age group to controls identified through the North Carolina Division of Motor Vehicles and Medicare lists [AA: 548 cases, 452 controls; EA: 858 cases, 748 controls]. Participants self-reported meat preparation methods and intake frequencies. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age, race, alcohol intake, body mass index, family income, lactation, marital status, use of oral contraceptives, postmenopausal hormone use, smoking status, and offsets.
RESULTS: Positive associations with breast cancer were observed for intakes of grilled/barbecued hamburger (≥ once/week, OR: 1.28; 95% CI 1.01, 1.63), and pan-fried/oven-broiled beef steak (≥ once/week, OR: 1.36; 95% CI 1.08, 1.72). Inverse associations were observed for pan-fried fish (≥ once/week, OR: 0.77; 95% CI 0.60, 0.98), and for grilled/ barbecued pork chops (> 0 time/week OR: 0.81, 95% CI 0.68, 0.97). Associations tended to be stronger among EA women than among AA women.
CONCLUSION: More frequent consumption of beef prepared with high temperature methods was associated with higher odds of breast cancer while more frequent consumption of pan-fried fish or grilled/barbecued pork chops was associated with lower odds of breast cancer.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Breast Cancer Research and Treatment


Omofuma, Omonefe O.
Steck, Susan E.
Olshan, Andrew F.
Troester, Melissa A.

Article Type




Data Set/Study

Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS)


United States of America


North Carolina


European American




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