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Kaufman, Jay S. & Cooper, Richard S. (2000). 'Seeking Causal Explanations in Social Epidemiology' - Reply. American Journal of Epidemiology, 151(8), 832-833.


While we acknowledge the importance of the issues raised by Krieger and Davey Smith (1), they seem to us only tangential to the focus of our recent article (2). The statistical concept of "exchangeability" we were discussing (3) is unrelated to the idea of universal human rights; in fact, conflating the two risks obfuscation. We argued that the standard method of analysis used for racial comparisons in etiologic studies is logically flawed and often serves to reinforce racist explanations of health differentials


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

American Journal of Epidemiology


Kaufman, Jay S.
Cooper, Richard S.