CitationSiega-Riz, Anna Maria; Popkin, Barry M.; & Carson, Terri A. (2000). Differences in Food Patterns at Breakfast by Sociodemographic Characteristics among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults in the United States. Preventive Medicine, 30(5), 415-424.
AbstractBackground: Eating breakfast is considered an important determinant of a healthy lifestyle. This study explores the different food patterns of breakfast for adults aged 18-65 in the United States.
Methods: Data are from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, n = 15,641. Dietary assessment method used was the 24-h recall. Nutrient differences among the breakfast food patterns as well as the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals following each eating pattern are examined.
Results: The primary food patterns were based on consumption of eggs (15.3% of adults), ready-to-eat cereals (17.4%), bread (21.7%), cooked cereal (4.4%), fruit and fruit juice (5.5%), and coffee, soft drinks, and high-fat desserts (15.1%). Seventeen and three-tenths percent of the adults skipped breakfast. These food patterns provide remarkably different nutrient profiles adjusting for energy intake. The egg pattern is highest in total fat, lowest in fiber density, and low in iron and calcium density. In contrast, the ready-to-eat cereal pattern is high in fiber, highest in calcium density, and very low in fat. Breakfast food patterns differ markedly by various sociodemographic factors such as gender, ethnicity, and educational level.
Conclusion: Different segments of our population consume different types of foods at breakfast, contributing to differences in their nutrient intakes.
Reference TypeJournal Article
Journal TitlePreventive Medicine
Author(s)Siega-Riz, Anna Maria
Popkin, Barry M.
Carson, Terri A.