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Hall, Amber M.; Ramos, Amanda M.; Drover, Samantha S. M.; Choi, Giehae; Keil, Alexander P.; Richardson, David B.; Martin, Chantel L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Villanger, Gro D.; & Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted, et al. (2023). Gestational Organophosphate Ester Exposure and Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort Study. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 248, 114078. PMCID: PMC9898152


BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) is a leading neurodevelopmental disorder in children worldwide; however, few modifiable risk factors have been identified. Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are ubiquitous chemical compounds that are increasingly prevalent as a replacement for other regulated chemicals. Current research has linked OPEs to neurodevelopmental deficits. The purpose of this study was to assess gestational OPE exposure on clinically-assessed ADHD in children at age 3 years.
METHODS: In this nested case-control study within the Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort study, we evaluated the impact of OPE exposure at 17 weeks' gestation on preschool-age ADHD. Between 2007 and 2011, 260 ADHD cases were identified using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment and compared to a birth-year-stratified control group of 549 children. We categorized bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP) and bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) as values < limit of detection (LOD) (BBOEP N = 386, BDCIPP N = 632),


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health


Hall, Amber M.
Ramos, Amanda M.
Drover, Samantha S. M.
Choi, Giehae
Keil, Alexander P.
Richardson, David B.
Martin, Chantel L.
Olshan, Andrew F.
Villanger, Gro D.
Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
Zeiner, Pål
Øvergaard, Kristin R.
Sakhi, Amrit K.
Thomsen, Cathrine
Aase, Heidi
Engel, Stephanie M.

Article Type




Data Set/Study

Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Birth Cohort Study




Olshan - 0000-0001-9115-5128
Martin, C. - 0000-0003-1907-0810