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Quinones, Sarah; Mendola, Pauline; Tian, Lili; Lin, Shao; Novignon, Jacob; Angeles, Gustavo; & Palermo, Tia M. (2023). Ghana's Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty (1000) Program Seasonally Impacts Birthweight: A Difference-in-Differences Analysis. International Journal of Public Health, 68, 1605336. PMCID: PMC9986251


Objectives: Low birthweight (LBW) prevalence remains high in African countries and evidence of cash transfer impacts on birthweight, particularly by season of infant birth, is limited. This study examines overall and seasonal cash transfer impacts on LBW in rural Ghana.
Methods: Data come from a longitudinal, quasi-experimental impact evaluation of the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) 1,000 unconditional cash transfer program for impoverished pregnant or lactating women in rural districts of Northern Ghana. LEAP1000 program impacts on average birthweight and LBW were estimated for a multiply imputed sample of 3,258 and a panel sample of 1,567 infants using differences-in-differences models and triple difference models to assess impacts by season.
Results: LEAP1000 decreased LBW prevalence by 3.5 and 4.1 percentage points overall and in the dry season, respectively. LEAP1000 increased average birthweight by 94, 109, and 79 g overall, in the dry season, and in the rainy season, respectively.
Conclusion: Our findings of positive LEAP1000 impacts on birthweight across seasons and on LBW in the dry season demonstrate the need to take seasonal vulnerabilities into account when designing and implementing programs for rural populations in Africa.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

International Journal of Public Health


Quinones, Sarah
Mendola, Pauline
Tian, Lili
Lin, Shao
Novignon, Jacob
Angeles, Gustavo
Palermo, Tia M.

Article Type




Data Set/Study

Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP)




Angeles - 0000-0003-4598-152X