Hertz-Picciotto, Irva (2000). The Evidence That Lead Increases the Risk for Spontaneous Abortion. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 38(3)
Background: Reports from a period spanning more than a century, and covering occupationally exposed women in several countries, support an increase in pregnancy loss from high maternal lead exposures. Nevertheless, most studies conducted among populations with low/moderate exposures have provided little evidence of an association with pregnancy loss, or in particular, spontaneous abortions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine