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Association of Preeclampsia with High Birth Weight for Gestational Age

Citation

Xu, Xiong; Demianczuk, Nestor N.; Buekens, Pierre; & Saunders, L. Duncan (2000). Association of Preeclampsia with High Birth Weight for Gestational Age. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 183(1), 148-155.

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia on fetal growth.
Study design: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on the basis of 97,270 pregnancies delivered between 1991 and 1996 in 35 hospitals in northern and central Alberta, Canada. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were performed to examine the impact of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension on high-birth-weight (> or =4200 g), large-for-gestational-age, low-birth-weight (<2500 g), and small-for-gestational-age babies.
Results: The rate of high-birth-weight fetuses in women with gestational hypertension (7. 3%) was higher than in those with normal blood pressure (5.6%). After we controlled for confounders, the adjusted odds ratio of high birth weight was 1.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.70) in women with gestational hypertension. Preeclampsia was also associated with a statistically nonsignificant (P =.054) increased risk of high birth weight (adjusted odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval 0. 99-1.98). The rate of large-for-gestational-age babies was significantly higher in women with gestational hypertension (4.5%) and preeclampsia (4.7%) than in those with normal blood pressure (2. 2%), with adjusted odds ratios of 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1. 22-1.85) for gestational hypertension and 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-2.67) for preeclampsia. Concurrently, women who had gestational hypertension were also at higher risk of having low-birth-weight (adjusted odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-2.93) and small-for-gestational-age (adjusted odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-2.48) babies. Women with preeclampsia were also at markedly higher risk of having low-birth-weight (adjusted odds ratio, 4.14; 95% confidence interval, 3.32-5.15) and small-for-gestational-age (adjusted odds ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.92-3.41) babies.
Conclusions: There is a significant association of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension with large-for-gestational-age infants, in addition to a significant association with low-birth-weight and small-for-gestational-age infants. This study challenges the currently held belief that reduced uteroplacental perfusion is the unique pathophysiologic process in preeclampsia.

URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mob.2000.105735

Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published

2000

Journal Title

American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology

Author(s)

Xu, Xiong
Demianczuk, Nestor N.
Buekens, Pierre
Saunders, L. Duncan