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Cole, Stephen R.; Edwards, Jessie K.; Breskin, Alexander; Rosin, Samuel; Zivich, Paul N.; Shook-Sa, Bonnie E.; & Hudgens, Michael G. (Online ahead of print). Rejoinder: Combining Information with Fusion Designs, and Roses by Other Names. American Journal of Epidemiology.


Dahabreh described a broad landscape of study designs and challenges to be met (1). We illustrated two cases as an entryway into that landscape (2). We say that fusion study designs combine data from more than one source to provide better answers. As stated by Dahabreh (1), in particular cases “better” might refer to identification, estimability, robustness, or efficiency. To reinforce the point that fusion designs and estimators are highly adaptable, here we present a third case. We close by introducing the concept of “learning” functions which may help explicate the enlarged set of identification conditions in fusion study designs.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published

Online ahead of print

Journal Title

American Journal of Epidemiology


Cole, Stephen R.
Edwards, Jessie K.
Breskin, Alexander
Rosin, Samuel
Zivich, Paul N.
Shook-Sa, Bonnie E.
Hudgens, Michael G.

Article Type



Zivich - 0000-0002-9932-1095
Edwards, J -0000-0002-1741-335X