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Hall, Amber M.; Keil, Alexander P.; Choi, Giehae; Ramos, Amanda M.; Richardson, David B.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Martin, Chantel L.; Villanger, Gro D.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; & Zeiner, Pål, et al. (2023). Prenatal Organophosphate Ester Exposure and Executive Function in Norwegian Preschoolers. Environmental Epidemiology, 7(3), e251. PMCID: PMC10256412


Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are ubiquitous chemicals, used as flame retardants and plasticizers. OPE usage has increased over time as a substitute for other controlled compounds. This study investigates the impact of prenatal OPE exposure on executive function (EF) in preschoolers.
METHODS: We selected 340 preschoolers from the Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort Study. Diphenyl-phosphate (DPhP), di-n-butyl-phosphate (DnBP), bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP), and bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) were measured in maternal urine. EF was measured using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Preschool (BRIEF-P) and the Stanford-Binet fifth edition (SB-5). EF scores were scaled so a higher score indicated worse performance. We estimated exposure-outcome associations and evaluated modification by child sex using linear regression.
RESULTS: Higher DnBP was associated with lower EF scores across multiple rater-based domains. Higher DPhP and BDCIPP were associated with lower SB-5 verbal working memory (


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Environmental Epidemiology


Hall, Amber M.
Keil, Alexander P.
Choi, Giehae
Ramos, Amanda M.
Richardson, David B.
Olshan, Andrew F.
Martin, Chantel L.
Villanger, Gro D.
Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
Zeiner, Pål
Øvergaard, Kristin R.
Sakhi, Amrit K.
Thomsen, Cathrine
Aase, Heidi
Engel, Stephanie M.

Article Type




Data Set/Study

Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)




Olshan - 0000-0001-9115-5128
Martin, C. - 0000-0003-1907-0810