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Lupton-Smith, Carly; Goicoechea, Elena B.; Collins, Megan; Lessler, Justin; Grabowski, M. Kate; & Stuart, Elizabeth A. (2023). Consistency between Household and County Measures of Onsite Schooling during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 16(3), 419-441. PMCID: PMC10441621


The academic, socioemotional, and health impacts of school policies throughout the COVID-19 pandemic have been a source of many questions that require accurate information about the extent of onsite schooling occurring. This article investigates school operational status datasets during the pandemic, comparing (1) self-report data collected nationally on the household level through a Facebook-based survey, (2) county-level school policy data, and (3) a school-level closure status dataset based on phone GPS tracking. The percentage of any onsite instruction within states and counties are compared across datasets from December 2020 to May 2021. Sources were relatively consistent at the state level and for large counties, but key differences were revealed between units of measurement, showing differences between policy and household decisions surrounding children's schooling experiences. The consistency levels across sources support the usage of each of the school policy sources to answer questions about the educational experiences, factors, and impacts related to K-12 education across the nation during the pandemic, but it remains vital to think critically as to which unit of measurement is most relevant to targeted research questions.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness


Lupton-Smith, Carly
Goicoechea, Elena B.
Collins, Megan
Lessler, Justin
Grabowski, M. Kate
Stuart, Elizabeth A.

Article Type




Data Set/Study

U.S. COVID-19 Trends and Impact Survey of Consumer Finances


United States




Lessler - 0000-0002-9741-8109