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Johnson, James H., Jr. (2002). U.S. Immigration Reform, Homeland Security, and Global Economic Competitiveness in the Aftermath of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks. North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, 27(3), 419-464.


After nearly a half-century of liberal immigration policymaking, the U.S. government has implemented a series of "get tough" reforms in recent years, including the USA Patriot Act of 2001, which are designed to reduce the nation's risk of exposure to future acts of terrorism. Research indicates that most of the amendments to our immigration policy over the past fifty years were designed to facilitate commerce, spread democracy, and promote knowledge and international understanding, especially by forging ties with future leaders abroad through international education programs.'


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation


Johnson, James H., Jr.