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Bauman, Karl E.; Foshee, Vangie Ann; & Haley, Nancy J. (1992). The Interaction of Sociological and Biological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking. Addictive Behaviors, 17(5), 459-467.


This article considers the interaction of social and biological factors in the context of adolescent cigarette smoking. Parent and peer smoking are the sociological variables and testosterone is the biological indicator. The subjects are 212 males and females 12–14 years of age. The findings support the interaction model, suggesting that both sociological and biological factors are necessary for understanding adolescent smoking.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Addictive Behaviors


Bauman, Karl E.
Foshee, Vangie Ann
Haley, Nancy J.