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Elman, Cheryl (1993). Turn-of-the Century Dependence and Interdependence: Roles of Teens in the Family Economies of the Aged. Journal of Family History, 18, 65-85.


This study adopts a household economy framework of analysis and links county, household, and individual level 1910 Census data to explore the extra-household activities of teens living in household economies of the aged. Findings are that the household presence of elder household heads or nonnuclear elders (coresident kin of household heads) had significant but different impacts on teens. Older household heads participated less in paid employment and responsibility for economic support generally fell on male teens in the household. Teens were less likely to attend school. In contrast, the presence of nonnuclear elders in households increased the odds of teen members being in school. Nonnuclear elders, as a group, showed need across several dimensions: economic, health, and social support, yet their intrahousehold contributions appear to have allowed teens to pursue schooling.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Family History


Elman, Cheryl