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Johnson, James H., Jr.; Burthey, Grover C., III; & Ghorm, Kevin (2008). Economic Globalization and the Future of Black America. Journal of Black Studies, 38(3), 883-899.


This article assesses the African American experience with economic globalization--the increasing tendency for goods and services consumed in the United States to be produced offshore in countries like Mexico, India, and China. It documents the racially disparate effects of the shift of blue-collar jobs offshore, which began in the 1960s and continues to the present, and estimates the size of the African American population that is at risk of future job loss due to the offshore movement of white-collar jobs--a post-1990 phenomenon. The article concludes with a set of strategies that African Americans must pursue to survive, thrive, and prosper in the years ahead in the highly unpredictable and turbulent global economy of the 21st century.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Black Studies


Johnson, James H., Jr.
Burthey, Grover C., III
Ghorm, Kevin