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Daaleman, Timothy P. & Kaufman, Jay S. (2006). Spirituality and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Care Outpatients. Southern Medical Journal, 99(12), 1340-1344.


Background: Although many studies have examined the relationship between religiosity and depressive symptoms in patient populations, there has been little work to understand and measure the effect of spirituality on depressive symptoms. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of spirituality and symptoms of depression in primary care outpatients. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed of a dataset using 509 primary care outpatients who participated in an instrument validity study in the Kansas City (US) area. Patients were administered the Zung Depression Scale (ZDS) and the Spirituality Index of Well-Being (SIWB) in the waiting area before or after their appointment. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the factors of interest and depressive symptoms. Results: In bivariate analyses, less insurance coverage (P < 0.01) and greater spirituality (P < 0.01) were associated with less reported depressive symptoms. In a model adjusted for covariates, spirituality (P < 0.01) remained independently associated with less symptoms. Conclusion: Primary care outpatients who report greater spirituality are more likely to report less depressive symptoms.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Southern Medical Journal


Daaleman, Timothy P.
Kaufman, Jay S.